This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rz. It expresses the sum of the maximum value of peak height Zp and the maximum value of valley depth Zy on the surface within the measured area

**POINT** These are commonly-used parameters. They are used for evaluation of gloss and luster, surface strength, surface treatability, frictional force, electrical contact resistance, etc.

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rp. It expresses the maximum value peak height Zp on the surface in the measured area.

*Surface peak: An area above the average level of the surface (X axis-Y axis)

**POINT** These are often used for evaluation of frictional force and electrical contact resistance.

*Surface peak: An area above the average level of the surface (X axis-Y axis)

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rv. It expresses the maximum value valley depth Zv on the surface in the measured area.

*Surface valley: An area below the average level of the surface (X axis-Y axis)

**POINT** These are often used for evaluation of surface strength and corrosion resistance.

*Surface valley: An area below the average level of the surface (X axis-Y axis)

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Ra. It expresses the average of the absolute values of Z(x,y) in the measured area. It is equivalent to the arithmetic mean of the measured region on the three-dimensional display diagram when valleys have been changed to peaks by conversion to absolute values.

**POINT** These are commonly-used parameters. The influence of a single injury on the measurement value becomes extremely small, so stable results can be obtained.

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rq. It expresses the root mean squared of Z(x,y) in the measured area. It is equivalent to the average mean squared of the measured region on the three-dimensional display diagram when valleys have been changed to high peaks by squaring.

**POINT** Evaluation methods using Rq are often used when expanded into 3D.

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rsk. This expresses a quotient of the mean cube value of the ordinate values and the cube of Sq within the measured area. This means the degree of skew, and expresses the symmetry of peaks and valleys about the average surface as the center.

Ssk=0: Symmetrical about the average line (normal distribution)

Ssk>0: Skewed downward relative to the average line

Ssk<0: Skewed upward relative to the average line

**POINT** These are often used for evaluation of gloss and luster.

Ssk=0: Symmetrical about the average line (normal distribution)

Ssk>0: Skewed downward relative to the average line

Ssk<0: Skewed upward relative to the average line

This is a 3D parameter expanded from the roughness (2D) parameter Rku. This expresses a quotient of the mean quadraticvalue of the ordinate values and the fourth power of Sq within the measure area. This means that the kurtosis is a yardstick for determining the sharpness of a surface, and expresses the pointing (sharpness) of the height distribution.

Sku=3: Normal distribution

Sku>3: The height distribution is spiked.

Sku<3: The form of the surface roughness height distribution is squashed.

**POINT** These are often used for evaluation of gloss and luster.

Sku=3: Normal distribution

Sku>3: The height distribution is spiked.

Sku<3: The form of the surface roughness height distribution is squashed.

These are 3D parameters expanded from the roughness (2D) parameters for lubrication performance evaluation of a plateau structure surface (Rk, Rpk, Rvk, Mr1, Mr2).
**POINT** These are used for purposes such as assessing the lubrication performance of engine cylinder surfaces.

- Sk Vertical difference in the core section: The difference between the uppermost level and the lowermost level in the core surface.
- Spk Height of protruding peak: The averaging height of the protruding peaks above the core surface.
- Svk Height of protruding valley: The averaging height of the protruding valley below the core surface.
- Smr1: The load area ratio that separates the protruding peak from the core section. It is displayed as a percentage.
- Smr2: The load area ratio that separates the protruding valley from the core section. It is displayed as a percentage.

Parameters related to the volume of the void portion and the material portion are defined as shown in the diagram. 10% and 80% are default values of the heights for the boundaries among the valley section, core section, and peak section.
**POINT** They are commonly used for evaluation of wear and lubricant oil retention.

- Vvv: The void volume of the valley section, as calculated from the material ratio curve
- Vvc: The void volume of the core section, as calculated from the material ratio curve
- Vmp: The material volume of the peak section, as calculated from the material ratio curve
- Vmc: The material volume of the core section, as calculated from the material ratio curve

This is defined as the shortest horizontal length at which the autocorrelation of the surface attenuates to the correlation value (0≦s<1). It is 0.2 unless stated otherwise.

This is defined as the ratio between Sal and the furthest horizontal distance at which the autocorrelation of the surface attenuates to the correlation value (0≦s<1), and indicates the strength of anisotropy and isotropy of the surface.

Str has a range from 0 to 1, and normally Str>0.5 indicates strong isotropy, while Str<0.3 indicates strong anisotropy.

**POINT** These are often used for evaluation of gloss and luster, high-grade feel, adhesion performance, and surface treatability.

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